Lipstick and Cosmetic Analysis
lips.jpg
Lipstick and Cosmetics are used mostly by women to "enhance" their beauty and provide color to their face, lips, eyes, or nails. Women wear make-up for a variety of reasons. They wear it for special occasions, to feel more confident about themselves, or to cover-up scars.

Different Types of Cosmetics
Their are different types of cosmetics to use for different things. For your lips you can use lip liner, lip gloss, lipstick, or chapstick. You can use mascara, eyeshadow, and eyeliner for your eyes. You use nail polish to give color to your nails. Most women apply foundation, concealer, blush, powder, bronzer, and moisturizer for the face. For your body you use perfume and deodorants.

cosmetics.jpg These are the several different types of cosmetics.

What lipstick and cosmetics are made out of
Cosmetics are made with organic or natural ingredients. Mineral make-up, also known as foundation powder, is mostly made with ingredients from the earth. It contains zinc oxide, mica, and titanium dioxide which also function as sunscreens. Lipstick is made out of waxes, oils, and emollients. In order to give lipstick its shape different types of waxes such as beeswax or carnauba wax will be used. Some lipsticks contain carcinogens such as formaldehyde or coal tar to give it color.

cosmeticmachine.jpg This machine helps produce cosmetics by mixing the several ingredients together and then dispersing them. It
is called the twin screw extrusion cosmetology.

What differentiates one brand from another
The difference from one brand of make-up from another is the amount of substance that is applied to it. The three major components of lipstick varies depending on the manufacturer. The difference between MAC substances and Lancome substances, which are both make-up brands, is the amount of wax or oil that is put into it. Their are a variety of lipsticks. Matte lipstick gives a vibrant color but it tends to dry the lips so a moisturizer must be added. Long- wearing lipstick is best for women who don't have time to continuously reapply the makeup. Lip gloss or shimmer is used to give a little shine to the lips if they look too dull. Adding lip gloss will seem as though the lips increased in size.

History
Cosmetics were first introduced by the Egyptians as early as 10,000 B.C. Egyptians used scented ointments to soften the skin and dyes or paints to add color to the skin, body, and hair. They colored their lips and cheeks and lined their eyes and eyebrows with kohl. Kohl is a dark-colored powder with crushed antimony, burnt almonds, lead, oxidized copper, and many other ingredients. Egyptians believed that kohl eyeliner would improve eyesight and minimize the risk of getting eye infections. It is believed that the Jews adopted the use of makeup from the Egyptians, since references to the painting of faces appear in the New Testament section of the Bible.

Then the use of cosmetics spread to the Greeks during 8,000 to 7,000 B.C. The Greeks used oils, eyeshadow, perfumes, skin glosses, and powders.
Later, the Romans began using cosmetics in 300 B.C.
By 1900 A.D., cosmetics were in widespread use in nearly all societies around the world, including the United States. In 1904, Max Factor, a Polish-American cosmetician, began selling his rouges and creams to United States. In the 1920s, cosmetics became extremely popular due to the flapper fashion look which consisted of dark eyes, red lipstick, and red nail polish. This resulted in cosmetics and fragrances being manufactured and mass marketed in America for the first time.

egyptian.jpg flapper.jpg Make-up first originated from the Egyptians and then spread around the world. When it transformed into the flapper style, it became popular and every female wore makeup.

Cosmetic relation to forensic evidence
Cosmetics, after being applied on an individual, now has the individuals DNA on it. If cosmetics are found at a crime-scene, they must be analyzed for further examination and comparison. Forensic scientists can try and match the evidence of cosmetics found at the crime scene to a specific brand or also to the same cosmetic as the suspect has in their possession. This evidence would have to be processed and carefully evaluated for any strands of not contaminated DNA.
machine.jpg This machine is used to analyze biological samples found at a crime scene such as strands of DNA left behind from a lipstick stain.

Lipstick prints and smears
Lipstick prints and smears can be used as evidence at a crime scene the same way finger prints can. If the scientist compares the smear at a crime scene from the victim, they can show proof of some sort of relationship between the suspect and victim. It is very easy for lipstick smears and foundation to accidentally get onto other clothing or surfaces. In some cases, it can be possible to gather saliva which will contain DNA from the lipstick print.
lip-prints.jpg This is a lipstick stain found at a crime scene that may contain DNA on it or show proof of contact between the suspect and victim.

Cases
The 1950s was the first case in which lip prints was used to identify the suspect and victim. This resulted in accepting this technique as evidence. Research mainly was about identifying the lip print types at a crime scene. Today, research focuses on the characteristics of lip prints on dead bodies and to determine the post mortem effects in lip impressions. Their were various cases in New Zealand that forensic scientists had to examine the cosmetic evidence. Many samples had to be examined by gas chromotagraphy and infrared spectroscopy. The techniques used to solve this part of the case would be 99.7% valid and efficient in a court case. Gas chromatography can be used to separate a lipstick stain from another material and then separate the DNA that is on the lipstick stain. Gas chromatography is a chromatographic process in which a mixture of gases or vapors are separated by their differential absorption by a stationary phase. Infrared spectroscopy can identify and study the chemicals that are in the cosmetic substances to determine the specific brand, match it to the manufacturer, and then match it to the victim or suspect. Infrared spectroscopy focuses on the infrared area of the electromagnetic substance. It is based on absorption spectroscopy.

References:
http://www.sophisticatededge.com/what-is-lipstick-made-of-lipstick-ingredients.html
http://www.cyonic-nemeton.com/Cosmetics.html
http://www.faqs.org/espionage/Fo-Gs/Forensic-Science.html
http://www.cyonic-nemeton.com/Cosmetics.html
http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/history2.php
http://chemistscorner.com/how-cosmetic-chemists-can-help-forensic-science/
100 Most Important Scientic Ideas by Mark Henderson, Joanne Baker, and Tony Crilly
Dissecting Death by Frederick Zugibe, M.D, Ph.D., and David L. Carroll